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Xondaro Guarani: An Indigenous Martial Performance

The main objective of this study was to analyze aspects of xondaro, based on the four main characteristics established by Wojciech Cynarski for martial arts.


To achieve this, the study employed the embodiment paradigm of Thomas Csordas, utilizing the concepts of Merleau-Ponty's pre-objective and Bourdieu's habitus.


Specifically, the study aimed to comprehend how the practice of xondaro impacts the process of socialization, with a focus on analyzing the influence of xondaro as a martial art and the role of the opponent in this context.


To accomplish this, the study analyzed testimonials from the documentary "Xondaro Mbaraete - A Força do Xondaro," conducted virtual interviews with a xondaro ruvixa, and reviewed previous research on the topic.

Access level:

Open

Defense/Publication date

2019

Document type:

Monograph

Language:

Português

Defense/Publication institution:

Rio de Janeiro State University

Author:

Nino Rhamos (Figueiredo, W. R.)

Evaluation committee:

Cláudia Barcellos e Daniela Alarcon

Advisor:

Marcos Alexandre dos Santos Albuquerque

Department:

Anthropology

Subjects in Portuguese:

  • Corporeidade

  • Guarani

  • Xondaro

  • Técnicas de combate

  • Artes marciais

  • Filme documentário

Subjects in English:

  • Embodiment

  • Guarani

  • Xondaro

  • Combat techniques

  • Martial arts

  • Documentary film

Knowledge fields:

  • Anthropology

  • Visual anthropology

  • Martial arts Anthropology

  • Ethnic studies

Abstract in Portuguese:

A prática das artes marciais pode ser considerada uma tradição ancestral em diversas culturas e continua sendo muito presente atualmente. O presente estudo teve como objetivo examinar os aspectos físicos do xondaro, uma forma de luta Guarani, utilizando as quatro características principais estabelecidas por Wojciech Cynarski para definir o que é uma arte marcial. A pesquisa foi conduzida com base no paradigma da corporeidade de Thomas Csordas, empregando os conceitos de pré-objetivo de Marleau-Ponty e habitus de Bourdieu. O propósito da pesquisa foi compreender como a prática do xondaro afeta o processo de socialização, buscando analisar especificamente a influência do xondaro, enquanto arte marcial, e este Outro, compreendido como adversário. O método utilizado incluiu análise de depoimentos do documentário “Xondaro Mbaraete – A Força do Xondaro” e entrevistas virtuais com um mestre xondaro ruvixa, além de estudos anteriores sobre o tema. Com base na compreensão de que as práticas marciais acontecem em dois momentos, dois eventos performáticos, os resultados sugerem que o xondaro é uma forma não sistemática de alcançar um estágio anterior ao processo de objetificação, segundo a definição de Csordas. A valorização dos elementos sensoriais da prática permite ao praticante atingir níveis de experiência que promovem uma espécie de re-objetificação do mundo, indicando que a prática busca o desenvolvimento da percepção sensorial do praticante, em vez de uma especialização técnica ou justificação racional. O estudo contribui para o campo da antropologia ao trazer novas informações sobre a prática do xondaro e oferecer uma perspectiva antropológica sobre as artes marciais.

Abstract in English:

The act of combat is an age-old custom in numerous societies and remains relevant in the present day. This investigation aims to scrutinize the physical features of xondaro, a form of Guarani combat, utilizing Wojciech Cynarski’s four defining characteristics of martial arts. The study employs Thomas Csordas’ embodiment theory, incorporating Maurice Merleau-Ponty’s pre-objectivity and Pierre Bourdieu’s habitus. The objective is to comprehend how the practice of xondaro influences socialization by examining the impact of xondaro as a martial art and the Other, defined as an opponent. The methodology encompasses an analysis of testimonials from the documentary “Xondaro Mbaraete – A Força do Xondaro,” virtual interviews with a xondaro ruvixa master, and previous research on xondaro. As per Csordas’ definition, the results indicate that xondaro is an unsystematic approach to achieving a stage before objectification. The emphasis on sensory components allows the practitioner to attain levels of experience that foster a type of re-objectification of the world, implying that the practice aims to enhance the practitioner’s sensory perception rather than technical expertise or logical justification. This exploration enriches the field of anthropology by providing novel insights into the practice of xondaro and presenting an anthropological outlook on martial arts.

Download file (pdf):

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/370400859_Xondaro_Guarani_Uma_performance_marcial_indigena


 

The results of the study suggest that xondaro is an unsystematic way of achieving a stage prior to objectification, as defined by Csordas, and that the emphasis on sensory elements of the practice enables the practitioner to attain levels of experience that foster a type of re-objectification of the world.


Indigenous marcial art
Xondaro Mbaraete - The Power of Xondaro

This suggests that the practice aims to develop the practitioner's sensory perception, rather than technical specialization or rational justification. The study aims to contribute to the field of anthropology, specifically martial arts, by presenting new information on the practice of xondaro and providing an anthropological perspective.


Watch the film:


The findings are relevant for understanding the effects of martial arts on the process of socialization and the development of the practitioner's sensory perception, and may be valuable for scholars and practitioners in these fields.

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